Jumat, 28 Agustus 2015

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

Songbird habitat affects reproduction, survival

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

A professor who studies birds around the world has discovered trends in how the offspring grow, how parents care for the young and how well the young survive based on where they live.

Scientists warn leaders of dangers of thawing permafrost

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

WHRC scientists have counseled the State Department on policies that could control permafrost thaw, including reducing global carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation, and limiting emissions of 'black carbon,' sooty particles that darken snow and ice and hasten Arctic warming.

Soaking up carbon dioxide and turning it into valuable products

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

Researchers have incorporated molecules of porphyrin CO2 catalysts into the sponge-like crystals of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) to create a molecular system that not only absorbs carbon dioxide, but also selectively reduces it to CO, a primary building block for a wide range of chemical products.

Imaging techniques set new standard for super-resolution in live cells

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 11:37 AM PDT

Scientists can now watch dynamic biological processes with unprecedented clarity in living cells using new imaging techniques. The new methods dramatically improve on the spatial resolution provided by structured illumination microscopy, one of the best imaging methods for seeing inside living cells.

HIV particles do not cause AIDS, our own immune cells do

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 11:19 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered that HIV does not cause AIDS by the virus's direct effect on the host's immune cells, but rather through the cells' lethal influence on one another. In a new study, the researchers revealed that the HIV 'death pathway' -- how 95 percent of cells die from the virus -- is only initiated if the virus is passed from cell-to-cell, not if cells are infected by free-floating viral particles.

To track winter flounder, researchers look to ear bones

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 11:19 AM PDT

Researchers are turning to an unusual source -- otoliths, the inner ear bones of fish -- to identify the nursery grounds of winter flounder, the protected estuaries where the potato chip-sized juveniles grow to adolescence. The research could aid the effort to restore plummeting winter flounder populations along the East Coast of the US.

Research identifies a protein that helps determine the fate of RNA

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 10:02 AM PDT

RNA can be translated into protein or transformed into gene-regulating molecules. A newly discovered 'reader' protein recognizes a chemical instruction tag affixed to RNA, an important step in determining the RNA's destiny. Because of the fundamental processes involved, this research has implications for cells' normal function and disease.

Fish oil-diet benefits may be mediated by gut microbes

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 10:01 AM PDT

Diets rich in fish oil versus diets rich in lard (e.g., bacon) produce very different bacteria in the guts of mice, reports a new study. The researchers transferred these microbes into other mice to see how they affected health. The results suggest that gut bacteria share some of the responsibility for the beneficial effects of fish oil and the harmful effects of lard.

Data backs limits on deep-sea fishing by depth

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 10:01 AM PDT

Researchers have evidence in support of a clearly defined depth limit for deep-sea fishing in Europe. The findings come just as the European Union considers controversial new legislation to manage deep-sea fisheries, including a ban on trawling below 600 meters.

Mammary gland is shaped by adaptive immune system during development

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 09:20 AM PDT

In experiments with mouse tissue, researchers have discovered that the adaptive immune system, generally associated with fighting infections, plays an active role in guiding the normal development of mammary glands, the only organs -- in female humans as well as mice -- that develop predominately after birth, beginning at puberty.

Getting a picture of the molecules in a cell in just minutes

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 09:19 AM PDT

Scientists can now take a peek into a single plant cell and -- within minutes -- get a view of the small molecules, including metabolites, hormones, nutrients, and lipids, inside it.

About 10 percent of mothers experienced depression two years after Hurricane Katrina

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 09:19 AM PDT

About 10 percent of mothers experienced chronic, persistent depressive symptoms two years after Hurricane Katrina slammed into the Gulf Coast, killing more than 1,800 people, displacing hundreds of thousands and causing widespread damage estimated at more than $100 billion, according to a new study.

Intensity of desert storms may affect ocean phytoplankton

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 09:19 AM PDT

Scientists have determined that once iron is deposited in the ocean, it has a very short residence time, spending only six months in surface waters before sinking into the deep ocean. This high turnover of iron signals that large seasonal changes in desert dust may have dramatic effects on surface phytoplankton that depend on iron.

Probiotics show no impact preventing gastrointestinal colonization with drug-resistant bugs in ICU

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 08:16 AM PDT

Probiotics show no benefit for preventing or eliminating gastrointestinal colonization with drug-resistant organisms in patients in the intensive care unit compared to standard care, according to new research.

New fossil skulls reveal insights about penguin brain evolution

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 08:16 AM PDT

Although flightless in air, penguins have a number of adaptations which allow them glide effortlessly through the water. And some of these adaptations are in an unlikely part of their anatomy -- their brains. Recent finds of fossil penguins from 35-million-year-old sediments in Antarctica have begun to shed light on the changes in penguin brains that accompanied their transition to water.

Mating with the wrong insect may cut yellow fever mosquito populations

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 07:18 AM PDT

Asian tiger mosquitoes can drive down yellow fever mosquito populations when the female chooses the wrong male with which to mate, UF/IFAS scientists say. Both insects transmit chikungunya and dengue, dangerous diseases affecting millions of people worldwide.

Soils protect the natural environment

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 07:18 AM PDT

No matter where you live, soils protect the natural environment around you.

Bacterial warfare

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 07:17 AM PDT

Researchers demonstrate how gram-negative bacteria deliver toxins to kill neighboring bacteria.

Humus depletion induced by climate change?

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 07:09 AM PDT

The yields of many important crops in Europe have been stagnating since the 1990s. As a result, the input of organic matter into the soil -- the crucial source for humus formation -- is decreasing. Scientists suspect that the humus stocks of arable soils are declining due to the influence of climate change. Humus, however, is a key factor for soil functionality, which is why this development poses a threat to agricultural production -- and, moreover, in a worldwide context.

How dynamin mediates membrane constriction and scission

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 07:09 AM PDT

Cells continually form membrane vesicles that are released into the cell. If this vital process is disturbed, nerve cells, for example, cannot communicate with each other. The protein molecule dynamin is essential for the regulated formation and release of many vesicles. Scientists have now elucidated this process and demonstrated how specific mutations impair the function of dynamin in disease.

Mystery of polar bear Knut's disease finally solved

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 07:09 AM PDT

Knut, the famous polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden died of encephalitis. However, the cause of his disease has remained elusive until now. Biologists have now solved the case: The bear suffered from an autoimmune disease called 'anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis'. Knut is the first wild or domestic animal in which this form of encephalitis has been demonstrated.

Bitter pill: Monarchs, milkweed and self-medication in a changing world

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:38 AM PDT

The milkweed plants growing in 40 cube-shaped chambers on a hilltop at the University of Michigan Biological Station provide a glimpse into the future that allows researchers to ask a question: How will monarch butterflies fare?

Fair Trade Logo Boosts Consumer’s willingness to pay

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:36 AM PDT

Products labeled with a Fair Trade logo cause prospective buyers to dig deeper into their pockets. Participants were willing to pay on average 30 percent more for ethically produced goods, compared to their conventionally produced counterparts. The neuroscientists analyzed the neural pathways involved in processing products with a Fair Trade emblem. They identified a potential mechanism that explains why Fair Trade products are evaluated more positively. For instance, activity in the brain's reward center increases and thereby alters willingness to pay computations.

High protein foods boost cardiovascular health, as much as quitting smoking or getting exercise

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:36 AM PDT

Eating foods rich in amino acids could be as good for your heart as stopping smoking or getting more exercise -- according to new research.

Dominance in a group of dogs expressed in hard figures

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:35 AM PDT

The hierarchy in a group of dogs is not based on aggression but on submissiveness. A dog ranked lower in the hierarchy displays signals of submissive behavior towards dogs ranked higher. These findings have for the first time been substantiated by means of measurements.

Cell mechanics are more complex than previously thought

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:35 AM PDT

Cell mechanics are considerably more complex than previously thought and may affect cell structures at various levels.

What would a tsunami in the Mediterranean look like?

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:35 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece.

Historic 2013 Colorado Front Range storm accomplished up to 1,000 years of erosion

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

The historic September 2013 storm that triggered widespread flooding across Colorado's Front Range eroded the equivalent of hundreds, or even as much as 1,000 years worth of accumulated sediment from the foothills west of Boulder, researchers have discovered.

Plant species' genetic responses to climate change

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

A new study has found that the genetic diversity of wild plant species could be altered rapidly by anthropogenic climate change.

Pigments, organelles persist in fossil feathers: Shed light on original coloration of long-lost animals

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

An international team of researchers has found direct chemical evidence that the fossilized remains of a bird-like dinosaur still harbor melanosomes and the pigment they produced. Their study reinforces the idea that scientists can discern the coloration of long-lost animals.
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