Selasa, 26 Juli 2016

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News


Before animals, evolution waited eons to inhale

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:15 PM PDT

Time to smash the beaker when thinking about oxygen concentrations in water, at the time when animal life first evolved. Oceans stacked oxygen here and depleted it there, as a new novel model demonstrates. It may well toss a wrench into the way we have dated the evolution of the earliest animals.

Human 'super predator' more terrifying than bears, wolves and dogs

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

Bears, wolves and other large carnivores are frightening beasts but the fear they inspire in their prey pales in comparison to that caused by the human 'super predator.' A new study demonstrates that smaller carnivores, like European badgers, that may be prey to large carnivores, actually perceive humans as far more frightening.

Spiders spin unique phononic material

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

How spider silk transmits phonons -- quanta of sound -- could inspire novel materials to manipulate sound and heat, according to scientists.

DNA analyses reveal genetic identities of world's first farmers

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:37 AM PDT

Conducting the first large-scale, genome-wide analyses of ancient human remains from the Near East, an international team of scientists has illuminated the genetic identities and population dynamics of the world's first farmers.

Salad days: Tomatoes that last longer and still taste good

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:21 AM PDT

The precise mechanisms involved in tomato softening have remained a mystery until now. Research has identified a gene that encodes an enzyme which plays a crucial role in controlling softening of the tomato fruit.

Sibling competition helped guide dispersal in pre-industrial populations

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Researchers who examined family genealogies from Finland found that the presence of same-sex elder siblings increased the probability that people would disperse to new lands, whereas having opposite-sex siblings had less influence.

Novel technique to 'taste' DNA

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Scientists have demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to selectively sequence fragments of DNA in real time, greatly reducing the time needed to analyze biological samples.

Marijuana exposure in kids rose after recreational use legalized in Colorado

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

The legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado was associated with both increased hospital visits and cases at a regional poison center because of unintentional exposure to the drug by children, suggesting effective preventive measures are needed as more states consider legalizing the drug, according to a new article.

Flower bud uniformity beholden to time, space

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

A study of sepals in Arabidopsis plants reveals the mystery of how uniformity in flowers and organs occurs. In the study, the diverse international team used an interdisciplinary approach that combined expertise in biology, computer science, physics and applied mathematics.

New index reveals likelihood of terrestrial or aquatic lifestyles of extinct mammals

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new index based on rib and body weight measurements that predicts whether a mammal lived on land, in water, or both. When applied to extinct mammalian species, the index showed that some could not have supported their own weight while walking or crawling, and thus must have been restricted to an aquatic life. The index reveals the habitats of extinct species and enables reconstruction of their lifestyles and the anatomical changes that accompanied adoption of an exclusively aquatic lifestyle.

Hot desert storms increase risk of bacterial meningitis in Africa

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

Exposure to airborne dust and high temperatures are significant risk factors for bacterial meningitis, a new study has found. The Sahel region of West Africa has the highest number of bacterial meningitis cases in the world. Previous studies have suggested that climate factors play a role in outbreaks, but little was known about the specific impact of climate on bacterial meningitis and how it caused disease.

A bioink by any other name: Clarifying definitions in 3-D bioprinting

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:41 AM PDT

A new article defines key terms associated with bioinks and bioprinting.

New extinct carnivorous marsupial discovered

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:41 AM PDT

A new species of extinct flesh-eating marsupial that terrorized Australia's drying forests about 5 million years ago has been identified from a fossil discovered in remote northwestern Queensland. The hypercarnivore is a distant and much bigger cousin of Australia's largest living, flesh-eating marsupial, the Tasmanian devil. Named Whollydooleya tomnpatrichorum, it is the first creature to be formally identified from a range of strange new animals whose remains have been found in a recently discovered fossil site in Queensland dubbed 'New Riversleigh.'

How honey bees 'telescope' their abdomens

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:41 AM PDT

Honey bees are able to wiggle their abdomens in a variety of ways. Now new research shows how they are able to do it. Specialized membranes that connect a honey bee's abdominal segments are thicker on the top of the abdomen than on the bottom, report the scientists. This asymmetry allows the segments to lengthen on top and contract on the bottom, resulting in the unidirectional curling the researchers observed in the bees they filmed.

Unlocking the secret to cheaper solar power

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 06:02 AM PDT

As climate change garners more attention around the world, scientists have made critical advances in understanding the physical properties of an emerging class of solar cells that have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of solar energy.

Magma build-up may put Salvadoran capital at risk

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 06:02 AM PDT

The build-up of magma six kilometres below El Salvador's Ilopango caldera means the capital city of San Salvador may be at risk from future eruptions, researchers have found.

Historic find: A statue of an egyptian official at tel-hazor in israel

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 06:02 AM PDT

In a historic find, a large fragment of an Egyptian statue measuring 45 X 40 centimeters, made of lime-stone, was discovered in the course of the current season of excavations at Tel-Hazor, north of the Sea of Galilee in Israel. Only the lower part of the statue survived, depicting the crouching feet of a male figure, seated on a square base on which a few lines in the Egyptian hieroglyphic script are inscribed.

Developing reliable renewable energy sources

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 06:01 AM PDT

As the world's population continues to grow, so does our consumption of natural resources. Many of these resources are non-renewable, so research into renewable sources of energy is vital. New Research is tackling this issue through reducing corrosion, improving heat transfer and fluid dynamics, and using nano coatings to enhance surface effiencies in renewable energy systems.

Unusual new zoantharian species is the first described solitary species in over 100 years

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 06:00 AM PDT

A very unusual new species of zoantharian was just discovered. Although most zoantharians are colonial and many are known from coral reefs, the new species lives a solitary life in muddy habitats. This species is the first of its genus described in over 100 years.

Loss of habitats and local species extinctions

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 06:00 AM PDT

Unfortunately, loss of plant and animal habitat leads to local species extinctions and a loss of diversity from ecosystems. Fortunately, not all of the extinctions occur at once. Conservation actions may still be able to save threatened species, according to a vertebrate zoologist.
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