Rabu, 25 Mei 2016

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

A warning system for tsunamis

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:34 PM PDT

Scientists have developed the Time Reverse Imaging Method to take real-time data from the ocean sensors and use that information to recreate what the tsunami looked like when it was born. Once scientists have the tsunami source pinpointed, they can use it to make better predictions about what will happen once the waves reach shore. This new method is fast enough to compete with existing algorithms but much more accurate.

Researchers find higher than expected carbon emissions from inland waterways

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:20 PM PDT

Greenhouse-gas emissions from lakes and inland waterways may be as much as 45 percent greater than previously thought, new research indicates.

A 100-million-year partnership on the brink of extinction

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:20 PM PDT

A symbiotic relationship that has existed since the time of the dinosaurs is at risk of ending, as habitat loss and environmental change mean that a species of Australian crayfish and the tiny worms that depend on them are both at serious risk of extinction.

Study shows how air pollution fosters heart disease

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:20 PM PDT

A major, decade-long study of thousands of Americans found that people living in areas with more outdoor pollution -- even at lower levels common in the United States -- accumulate deposits in the arteries that supply the heart faster than do people living in less polluted areas. The deposits in the coronary arteries accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis, which can contribute to heart disease and heart attacks.

Living near a landfill could damage your health

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:18 PM PDT

Health is at risk for those who live within five kilometers of a landfill site.

Harnessing nature’s vast array of venoms for drug discovery

Posted: 24 May 2016 01:37 PM PDT

Scientists have invented a method for rapidly identifying venoms that strike a specific target in the body -- and optimizing such venoms for therapeutic use.

Experts develop method for including migration uncertainty in population projections

Posted: 24 May 2016 01:37 PM PDT

Statisticians have developed what is believed to be the first model for factoring in the uncertainties of migration in population projections.

Mucus may play vital role in dolphin echolocation

Posted: 24 May 2016 01:37 PM PDT

A dolphin chasing a tasty fish will produce a stream of rapid-fire echolocation clicks that help it track the speed, direction and distance to its prey. Now researchers have developed a model that could yield new insights into how the charismatic marine mammals make these clicks - and it turns out mucus may play an important role.

Great apes communicate cooperatively

Posted: 24 May 2016 11:49 AM PDT

Gestural communication in bonobos and chimpanzees shows turn-taking and clearly distinguishable communication styles.

Wildfire: It's not spreading like wildfire

Posted: 24 May 2016 11:49 AM PDT

A new analysis of global data related to wildfire reveals major misconceptions about wildfire and its social and economic impacts. Researchers carried out detailed analysis of global and regional data on fire occurrence, severity and its impacts on society. They found that global area burned has seen an overall slight decline over past decades, despite some notable regional increases.

Crowdsourcing contest using data from people, dogs advances epileptic seizure forecasting

Posted: 24 May 2016 11:49 AM PDT

It might sound like a riddle: What do you get when you combine one online contest, two patients, five dogs and 654 data scientists?

As more states legalize marijuana, adolescents' problems with pot decline

Posted: 24 May 2016 11:49 AM PDT

A survey of more than 216,000 adolescents from all 50 states indicates the number of teens with marijuana-related problems is declining. Similarly, the rates of marijuana use by young people are falling despite the fact more US states are legalizing or decriminalizing marijuana use and the number of adults using the drug has increased.

Silencing cholera's 'social media'

Posted: 24 May 2016 11:47 AM PDT

Bacteria use a form of 'social media' communication, quorum sensing, to monitor how many of their species are in the neighborhood. This is important in the pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. In a new study scientists explore the molecular mechanism whereby the quorum sensing response regulator LuxO regulates V. cholerae's pathogenicity.

Air pollution exposure may raise heart disease risk

Posted: 24 May 2016 11:46 AM PDT

Exposure to air pollution can worsen blood sugar levels, cholesterol and other risk factors for heart disease, particularly in people with diabetes, according to a new study.

Truck turns its own heat into power

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:45 AM PDT

A 195-year-old discovery is behind a new system that will save vehicles hundreds of liters of fuel and reduce their carbon emissions by as much as 1,000 tons per year.

Northern invaders threaten Antarctic marine life

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:44 AM PDT

Scientists have found evidence that marine life can easily invade Antarctic waters from the north, and could be poised to colonize the rapidly-warming Antarctic marine ecosystems.

Study of fungi-insect relationships may lead to new evolutionary discoveries

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:44 AM PDT

Zombie ants are only one of the fungi-insect relationships studied by a team of biologists in a newly compiled database of insect fungi interactions.

People power crucial for low-carbon future, new research shows

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:43 AM PDT

Policy makers must harness the power of ordinary people if society is to transition to a low-carbon energy future, argues a leading technology historian.

Coral bleaching 'lifeboat' could be just beneath the surface

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:40 AM PDT

A report commissioned by the United Nations offers a glimmer of hope to those managing the impact of bleaching on the world's coral reefs, including the Great Barrier Reef. The 35 authors of the United Nations Environmental Programme in-depth report say as the world's surface reefs are being threatened, part of the ecosystem may survive in these barely known deeper environments, known as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs).

Barium leaches directly from fracked rocks

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:40 AM PDT

Researchers are shedding light on the early chemical reactions in the organic sediments that would ultimately become the Marcellus Shale, a major source of natural gas and petroleum.

Methane-producing microbes in California rocks

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:34 AM PDT

Scientists report that they have found evidence of hardy, methane-producing microbes in water that surfaces from deep underground at The Cedars, a set of freshwater springs in Sonoma County.

Early armored dinosaur from Texas lacked cousin's club-tail weapon, but had a nose for danger

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:34 AM PDT

First-ever CT scans of the early armored dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli reveal that although the Texas dino lacked its cousin's club-tail it had a sharp nose for danger. A relative of Ankylosaurus, Pawpawsaurus's saving grace from predators may have been an acute sense of smell, says vertebrate paleontologists. Pawpawsaurus lived 100 million years ago, preceding Ankylosaurus by 35 million years. CT scans allow scientists to determine how the animal's brain functioned.

Getting the most out of natural gas

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:34 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered a new catalyst that allows the easy conversion of natural gas constituents into precursors for the production of fuels or complex chemicals, such as polymers or pharmaceuticals. The new catalyst is extremely stable and results in fewer unwanted by-products.

How waves transport materials: How much can a mode-2 wave move?

Posted: 24 May 2016 09:15 AM PDT

For the first time, two mathematicians have created a 3-D simulation of the mass transport capabilities of mode-2 waves. Such models will help define how mode-2 waves can carry materials that are either beneficial (such as phytoplankton and other food sources) or detrimental (such as crude oil and other contaminants) between ecosystems.

Discovering how well wearable mosquito repellent devices work

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:03 AM PDT

Researchers are testing the efficacy of commercially available wearable mosquito repellent devices.

Study documents African monkeys eating bats

Posted: 24 May 2016 06:03 AM PDT

Primates and bats may interact directly, but their behavioral and predator-prey interactions are poorly documented, and detailed reports of their interactions have been rare, until now. The first study to document monkeys consuming bats with photos and video suggests an alternative pathway for bat-to-monkey disease transmission that has implications for zoonotic disease transmission to humans.

New tools to manipulate biology

Posted: 24 May 2016 05:59 AM PDT

Chemistry has provided many key tools and techniques to the biological community in the last twenty years. We can now make proteins that Mother Nature never thought of, image unique parts of live cells and even see cells in live animals. Biologists now take these accomplishments a step further, reporting advances in both how proteins are made and how you can see their expression patterns in live animals.

Developing biological micro-factories

Posted: 24 May 2016 05:57 AM PDT

Microalgae consist of single cells but are capable of producing everything from food to fuel with the help of tailor-made LED lighting.

World's largest coral gene database created

Posted: 24 May 2016 05:54 AM PDT

Scientists have conducted the world's most comprehensive analysis of coral genes, focusing on how their evolution has allowed corals to interact with and adapt to the environment.

Cell labelling via photobleaching: Precious ally for scientific research

Posted: 24 May 2016 05:54 AM PDT

A multidisciplinary team of researchers gives birth to a unique method that enables instant, specific labeling of individual cells, Cell Labelling via Photobleaching (CLaP). This method will become a precious ally in a wide range of scientific research, with particular applications for genomics.

Light can 'heal' defects in new solar cell materials

Posted: 24 May 2016 05:54 AM PDT

A family of compounds known as perovskites, which can be made into thin films with many promising electronic and optical properties, has been a hot research topic in recent years. But although these materials could potentially be highly useful in applications such as solar cells, some limitations still hamper their efficiency and consistency. Now, a team of researchers say they have made significant inroads toward understanding a process for improving perovskites' performance, by modifying the material using intense light.

A rallying call for microbiome science national data management in U.S.

Posted: 23 May 2016 01:06 PM PDT

Researchers call for the formation of a National Microbiome Data Center to efficiently manage the datasets accumulated globally. By integrating and harnessing all available microbiome data and metadata, researchers could conduct larger-scale comparative analyses in order to address global challenges related to energy, environment, health and agriculture.

Rare evolutionary event detected

Posted: 23 May 2016 01:04 PM PDT

Researchers witnessed a rare event and perhaps solved an evolutionary puzzle about how introns, non-coding sequences of DNA located within genes, multiply in a genome. The results address fundamental questions about the evolution of new species and could expand our understanding of gene expression and the causes of diseases such as cancer.

Can legumes solve environmental issues?

Posted: 23 May 2016 10:08 AM PDT

It's a win-win situation for the environment and the economy when it comes to introducing legumes into agricultural systems, says new research.

New research unveils an 80% reduction in atmospheric carbon monoxide as a result of car emissions policies

Posted: 23 May 2016 07:49 AM PDT

New research has highlighted the success of automotive technologies and policies in cutting atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by 80% within south-east England over the last 18 years. High levels of atmospheric pollutants including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are harmful to human health and are responsible for an estimated 9,500 deaths per year in London, say investigators.

Indigenous knowledge could hold key to management of wildfire risk

Posted: 23 May 2016 07:49 AM PDT

Fire practices of Indigenous peoples could combat the increasing frequency of devastating fires in tropical forests and savannas, according to research.
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