Sabtu, 21 Januari 2017

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

Team uncovers cellular responses to bird flu vaccine

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 04:45 PM PST

New research eavesdrops on gene expression in human immune system cells before and after vaccination against bird flu, exposing cellular responses associated with a vaccine constituent called AS03, short for adjuvant system 03. Using massive computation, the investigators pursue a systems biology approach, providing a new wealth of detail about vaccine responses and data for the generation of new hypotheses.

How bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 04:45 PM PST

Scientists have discovered how a unique bacterial enzyme can blunt the body's key weapons in its fight against infection.

New findings on how plants manage immune response

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 01:15 PM PST

New research has uncovered a previously unknown means by which plants are able to regulate how their immune systems respond to pathogens.

Seeking structure with metagenome sequences

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 01:15 PM PST

Scientists now report that structural models have been generated for 12 percent of the protein families that had previously had no structural information available.

Sea-surface temps during last interglacial period like modern temps

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 11:33 AM PST

Sea-surface temperatures during the last interglaciation period were like those of today, a new study reports. The trend is worrisome, as sea levels during the last interglacial period were between six and nine meters above their present height.
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Jumat, 20 Januari 2017

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

How much drought can a forest take?

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 11:34 AM PST

Why do some trees die in a drought and others don't? And how can we predict where trees are most likely to die in future droughts? Scientists have examined those questions in a new study.

Moth gut bacterium defends its host by making antibiotic

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 10:46 AM PST

Nearly half of all insects are herbivores, but their diets do not consist of only plant material. It is not uncommon for potentially harmful microorganisms to slip in during a feast. Researchers now report that these insects use an ironic strategy to resist microbial infections. A bacterial species commonly found in the gut of the cotton leafworm and other moths secretes a powerful antimicrobial peptide, killing off competitors.

Treated carbon pulls radioactive elements from water

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 10:45 AM PST

Scientists have developed inexpensive, oxidized carbon particles that extract radioactive metals from water. They said their materials may help purify contaminated waters stored after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

Roots of related genetic diseases found in cell powerhouses

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 09:56 AM PST

Scientists have discovered the mechanisms behind a genetic change known to cause a set of related diseases.

Ants find their way even when going backwards

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 09:54 AM PST

Ants can get their bearings whatever the orientation of their body, new research shows. Their brains may be smaller than the head of a pin, but ants are excellent navigators that use celestial and terrestrial cues to memorize their paths. To do so, they use several regions of the brain simultaneously, proving once again that the brain of insects is more complex than thought.

Technological progress alone won't stem resource use

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 09:02 AM PST

While some scientists believe that the world can achieve significant dematerialization through improvements in technology, a new study finds that technological advances alone will not bring about dematerialization and, ultimately, a sustainable world. The researchers found that no matter how much more efficient and compact a product is made, consumers will only demand more of that product and in the long run increase the total amount of materials used in making that product.

Caves in central China show history of natural flood patterns

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 09:02 AM PST

Researchers have found that major flooding and large amounts of precipitation occur on 500-year cycles in central China. These findings shed light on the forecasting of future floods and improve understanding of climate change over time and the potential mechanism of strong precipitation in monsoon regions.

Insecticides mimic melatonin, creating higher risk for diabetes

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 09:02 AM PST

Synthetic chemicals commonly found in insecticides and garden products bind to the receptors that govern our biological clocks researchers have found.

Regional sea-level scenarios: Helping US Northeast plan for faster-than-global rise

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 08:10 AM PST

Sea level in the Northeast and in some other US regions will rise significantly faster than the global average, according to a new report. In a worst-case scenario, global sea level could rise by about 8 feet by 2100, according to the report, which lays out six scenarios intended to inform national and regional planning.

Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 07:02 AM PST

Scientists have harnessed rabies viruses for assessing the connectivity of nerve cell transplants: coupled with a green fluorescent protein, the viruses show where replacement cells engrafted into mouse brains have connected to the host neural network. A clearing procedure which turns the brain into a 'glass-like state' and light sheet fluorescence microscopy are used to visualize host-graft connections in a whole-brain preparation.

'Marine repairmen': Limpets are construction workers of the seashore

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 07:02 AM PST

New research shows that limpets can repair their damaged shells with biological material so that they are as strong as the originals. However, they are still vulnerable to multiple impacts and 'spalling' -- a well-known cause of failure in engineering materials such as concrete.

Quality control inside the cell: How rescue proteins dispose of harmful messages

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 07:02 AM PST

The ability to dispose of proteins that are either aberrant or (in the worst case) toxic is fundamental to a cell's survival. Researchers have been able to demonstrate the manner in which two specific proteins recognize defective messenger RNAs (molecules that carry the 'assembly instructions' for protein synthesis) and trigger their destruction.

Insects also migrate, study shows

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 06:58 AM PST

Insects engage in the largest continental migration on Earth, new research indicates. Some 3.5 trillion insects in Southern Britain alone migrate each year – a biomass eight times that of bird migration. The researchers fear that global warming may significantly increase the number of insects, potentially affecting various ecosystems in different parts of the world

Harvests in US to suffer from climate change

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:46 AM PST

Some of the most important crops risk substantial damage from rising temperatures. To better assess how climate change caused by human greenhouse gas emissions will likely impact wheat, maize and soybean, an international team of scientists now ran an unprecedentedly comprehensive set of computer simulations of US crop yields. Importantly, the scientists find that increased irrigation can help to reduce the negative effects of global warming on crops -- but this is possible only in regions where sufficient water is available.

Climate change prompts Alaska fish to change breeding behavior

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:41 AM PST

One of Alaska's most abundant freshwater fish species is altering its breeding patterns in response to climate change, which could impact the ecology of northern lakes that already acutely feel the effects of a changing climate, research suggests.

New study will help find the best locations for thermal power stations in Iceland

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:38 AM PST

A new research article gives indications of the best places in Iceland to build thermal power stations.

Major Viking Age manor discovered at Birka, Sweden

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:38 AM PST

For centuries it has been speculated where the manor of the royal bailiff of Birka, Herigar, might have been located. New geophysical results provide evidence of its location at Korshamn, outside the town rampart of the Viking Age proto-town Birka in Sweden.

New theory may explain mystery of Fairy Circles of Namibia

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:38 AM PST

One of nature's greatest mysteries -- the 'Fairy Circles' of Namibia -- may have been unraveled by researchers. The study suggests that the interaction between termite engineering and the self-organization of vegetation could be jointly responsible for the phenomenon.

Protein complex prevents genome instability

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:35 AM PST

An international research collaboration is investigating the repair process of a serious form of DNA damage that can lead to instability of genetic material and tumor formation. The researchers are studying the roles of groups of proteins that control the repair of double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in DNA that occur from internal or external sources, such as UV irradiation.

Raw materials for meatballs, falafel from mealworms and crickets

Posted: 19 Jan 2017 05:35 AM PST

A research team has developed food ingredients from mealworms and crickets which, due to their promising structure and flavor, have the potential to be used in the manufacture of foods such as meatballs and falafel. EU legislation will change in the coming years, and the farming of insects and their processing for consumption will become a business activity also in Europe, they say.

Green Sahara's ancient rainfall regime revealed

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 03:17 PM PST

Rainfall patterns in the Sahara during the 6,000-year 'Green Sahara' period have been pinpointed by analyzing marine sediments. From 5,000 to 11,000 years ago, what is now the Sahara Desert had ten times the rainfall it does today and was home to hunter-gatherers who lived in the region's savannahs and wooded grasslands. The new research is the first to compile a continuous record of the region's rainfall going 25,000 years into the past.

Why baboon males resort to domestic violence

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 11:59 AM PST

Some baboon males vying for a chance to father their own offspring expedite matters in a gruesome way -- they kill infants sired by other males and attack pregnant females, causing them to miscarry, researchers report. Infanticide has been documented in other animals including baboons, lions and dolphins, but rarely feticide. The perpetrators are more prone to commit domestic violence when forced to move into a group with few fertile females, the study finds.

Researchers use weather radar to track migrating waterfowl, avian influenza

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 11:51 AM PST

Researchers are part of an effort that will use weather radar to identify wetland hotspots used by waterfowl during the winter, which in turn can alert poultry growers about the potential risk of avian influenza. The lab involved in the study is one of the only labs anywhere using weather radar data to map bird distributions at the ground level.

The tasmanian tiger had a brain structure suited to a predatory life style

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 11:50 AM PST

Brain scans suggest the action-planning part of the cortex was large in these extinct predators.

Seafloor valleys discovered below West Antarctic glaciers

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 09:52 AM PST

Glaciologists have uncovered large valleys in the ocean floor beneath some of the massive glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica. Carved by earlier advances of ice during colder periods, the troughs enable warm, salty water to reach the undersides of glaciers, fueling their increasingly rapid retreat.

Climate change to shift global pattern of mild weather

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 05:34 AM PST

As scientists work to predict how climate change may affect hurricanes, droughts, floods, blizzards and other severe weather, there's one area that's been overlooked: mild weather. But no more. Scientists have produced the first global analysis of how climate change may affect the frequency and location of mild weather.

Mitochondrial DNA shows past climate change effects on gulls

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 05:34 AM PST

To understand the present and future, we have to start with the past. A new study uses the mitochondrial DNA of Heermann's gulls to draw conclusions about how their population has expanded in the Gulf of California since the time of the glaciers -- and, by extension, how human-caused climate change may affect them in the future.

What will the wasp plague be like this year?

Posted: 18 Jan 2017 05:24 AM PST

New research has revealed the population of the common wasp is amplified by spring weather, with warmer and drier springs often meaning more wasps and wasp stings in summer.

Birds of a feather flock together to confuse potential predators

Posted: 17 Jan 2017 04:26 PM PST

Scientists have created a computer game style experiment which sheds new light on the reasons why starlings flock in massive swirling groups over wintering grounds.

Protein isolated from baker's yeast shows potential against leukemia cells

Posted: 17 Jan 2017 01:30 PM PST

An enzyme identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as brewer's or baker's yeast, has passed in vitro trials, demonstrating its capacity to kill acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells.
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