Sabtu, 03 Oktober 2015

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

Largest dinosaur population growth study ever shows how Maiasaura lived and died

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 04:17 PM PDT

Research into a vast bone bed in western Montana has yielded the most complete life history of any dinosaur known.

To breathe or to eat: Blue whales forage efficiently to maintain massive body size

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 11:48 AM PDT

As the largest animals to have ever lived on Earth, blue whales maintain their enormous body size through efficient foraging strategies that optimize the energy they gain from the krill they eat, while also conserving oxygen when diving and holding their breath, a new study has found.

Cell division: Physical forces involved in creating the mitotic spindle probed

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 10:31 AM PDT

Scientists have gained new insight into the formation of the spindle, which is the molecular machine that divides up genetic material prior to cell division. Their work focuses on the motor protein, kinesin-5, which helps to organize the spindle's filaments.

Researchers design 'biological flashlight' using light-producing ability of shrimp

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 07:35 AM PDT

Researchers describe the design and engineering of the new bioluminescent imaging tool called the "LumiFluor" in a new report. Using the natural light-producing ability of deep-sea shrimp, the team of scientists developed the new imaging tool to help cancer researchers better track tumor development and treatment responses.

Mimicry helps sheep solve a dilemma

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 07:33 AM PDT

Imitation behaviors play a key role in many collective phenomena seen in animals. An analysis of the collective movements of grazing sheep has revealed that sheep alternate slow dispersion phases with very fast regrouping, in which they imitate the behavior of their neighbors. This study shows that the intensity with which the sheep mimic one another plays a crucial role in the ability of a herd to maximize the grazing area explored while minimizing the time needed to regroup when faced with potential dangers.

Panel identifies most-effective methods for protecting western snowy plovers from raptors

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 07:33 AM PDT

Wildlife managers now have a technical report that can help them address raptors in their existing western snowy plover predation management plans. The report explores the effectiveness and feasibility of more than two dozen humane raptor control measures that can aid western snowy plover recovery.

Three new species of fruit flies identified

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 07:33 AM PDT

Researchers recently described three new species of Acanthiophilus, a genus of fruit flies that infest plants of the tribe Cardueae (thistles) within the family Asteraceae. Members of this genus live in Africa, the Canary Islands, Europe, and Asia.

Novel technology to produce microalgae biomass as feedstock for biofuel, food, feed and more

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 07:32 AM PDT

Novel and scalable technology and production process has been developed combining algal biomass cultivation, harvesting and concentration as well as extraction and fractionation of fatty acids from biomass. This results in ability to offer high quality feedstock for various industries in a highly competitive price.

Micro photosynthetic power cells may be the green energy source for the next generation

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 07:32 AM PDT

A novel micro-technology, which captures the electrical power generated by the photosynthesis and respiration of blue-green algae, has been created by scientists.

New biodegradable materials could replace plastic bags

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 05:23 AM PDT

As England gets set to start paying for plastic bags, researchers are making inroads into developing alternative biodegradable materials that could potentially replace fossil fuel derived polyethylene single-use carrier bags in the future.

Studying cardiac arrhythmias in nematodes

Posted: 02 Oct 2015 05:23 AM PDT

A simple model using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed that can be used to test substances for treating genetically-mediated cardiac arrhythmias. They used the nematode feeding apparatus for this purpose, a rhythmically active muscle pump that resembles the muscle cells in the mammalian heart. This could be an important step on the road to personalized treatment.

Using fruit fly larvae, researchers capture the symmetry of movement

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 09:57 AM PDT

How do our brains allow us to smile and breathe? Scientists have identified a network of neurons in the nerve cords of live fruit fly larvae that are similar in most organisms, including humans. Their discovery provides fundamental insights into how the network carries out essential motor and sensory duties.

Are the blueprints for limbs encoded in the snake genome?

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 09:56 AM PDT

The shared patterns of gene expression in the limbs and phallus are generated in part by a common set of noncoding DNA, also called 'elements' or 'enhancers,' which act to control gene expression in both of these structures, argues a new study. These conclusions stemmed from an initial observation that many limb control elements, or limb enhancers, found in limbed animals are still present in snake genomes.

The carbohydrate wind tunnel: Powerful carbohydrate analytics for sequencing and quality control

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 06:55 AM PDT

Researchers have succeeded in an effort to fundamentally improve carbohydrate analysis. With the new method, complex glycans, building blocks of life such as DNA and proteins, can now be sequenced. The quality control of synthetic carbohydrates is now possible as minimal impurities can be traced faster and more precisely. The new method is essential for the development of novel carbohydrate vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics.

Forage crop promising as ecologically friendly ornamental groundcover

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 06:44 AM PDT

Scientists studied characteristics of 16 selections of rhizoma peanut grown in full sun or under 30 percent shade in Florida. They observed greater height and a less uniform canopy for the shaded plants. Shade treatment had little effect on the time to reach full canopy cover or the duration of full canopy cover, indicating that rhizoma peanut will perform equally in full sun or 30 percent shade. The authors recommended four selections for ornamental use.

New DNA stain lights up living cells

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 06:38 AM PDT

A new DNA stain that can be used to image living cells has been created by scientists. The new stain works by binding to a part of the DNA helix known as the "minor groove." Once bound, it turns on and emits a bright fluorescent red light.

Nectar thieves are damaging rare orchids in North Dakota

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 06:37 AM PDT

Robbers and thieves are flying in the fields of southeastern North Dakota, but these larcenists aren't your typical criminals, prowling around in masks and disguises. They are hawk moths and bumble bees, and they've been stealing nectar from the federally-listed threatened western prairie fringed orchid.

New, ultra-detailed maps of Great Lakes recreational use will inform restoration priorities

Posted: 01 Oct 2015 06:37 AM PDT

Exceptionally detailed maps of five Great Lakes recreational activities have now been mapped by researchers who say the information can be used to help prioritize restoration projects.
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